Bakuman follows the leads from age 14 to 23ish, and you can see them subtly age as the series progresses, but nothing quite as drastic and multi-generational as Dragonball. Hikaru No Go did the same as well.
Ninja High School is multi-generational and spans about 30 years, but no one here has read it, so it doesn't count.
Tezuka's Phoenix goes from cavemen to the far flung future, but thats not quite what you want.
JoJo in multi-generational, but the cast generally starts pretty grown up, they don't really have a period of being children.
While Berserk is a seinin, it shows Guts from childhood to adolescence to manhood.
But no, not a lot of shonen spring to mind. which is kind of surprising, you'd think Dragonball would carry a larger influence in that regard.