Kizaru's ability to 'teleport' by turning into light and moving could be compared to Shunkan Ido (Instantaneous Movement). The dub of Dragon Ball Z even explained it as working exactly the same way ("You turn into light, fly to where you want to go, then turn back"), but this is dub nonsense, since light is nowhere near 'instant' and takes a long time to even travel to another planet. That said, it's fast enough to get anywhere on Earth in less than a second, so for Kizaru it's close enough to being the same thing.
Zoro's Asura ability is similar to Tenshinhan's ability to grow more arms, or, more likely, Goku's ability to create the illusion of having more arms by moving his really fast. I'm not sure exactly how Asura works (probably not like this), but it's amusing to imagine Zoro turning his head so fast that it leaves an after image…
Most of the Rokushiki techniques exist in Dragon Ball, under slightly different names, and sometimes different methods.
Rankyaku has a counterpart in Dragon Ball, simply known as 'Shockwave', where the person uses their body or ki to produce a shockwave in the air. Cell even used this to cut the rocks to create his arena for the Cell games. I suppose this one actually appears in a lot of anime (Kuno's swordsmanship in Ranma 1/2, for instance).
Shigan reminds me of when Tao Pai Pai impaled General Blue using his tongue. Kind of showing off.
Soru and Shakushi are similar to when Goku first 'disappeared' in one of the tenkaichi tournaments, just by moving fast.
Tekkai reminds me of the time Goku put ki into his finger to block Trunks' sword. It's like preparing and bracing yourself, using mind over matter.
'Haki' is like...overwhelming someone mentally, rather than physically. I don't think Dragon Ball ever uses ki in that sort of way. For that matter, I don't think they ever do anything like putting their ki into arrows to make them a better weapon. 'Haki' actually has a lot more in common with 'Nen' from Hunter x Hunter.